To transfer wine from one container to another,
either to aerate the wine or to remove red wine from its sediment
The French term for "disgorging," the removal of yeast
sediment from bottles in method Champenoise.
Sparkling wines that are moderately sweet to medium sweet.
The characteristic of fine wines that gives the impression of having
layers of taste, rather than being one-dimensional.
A sweet wine that usually accompanies dessert, such as fortified
or late harvest wines.
A term of method Champenoise referring to the second batch, or "cut,"
of press juices collected after the free-run juice.
A chemical byproduct of malolactic fermentation that gives a buttery
odor to the wine, enhancing complexity.
A term given to wines whose aromas and flavors are thin, as opposed
Using the pressure of gas in the wine to remove the collected sediment
from bottle-fermented sparkling wine.
A geographic area more specific than a region.
In Spain, the abbreviation of Denominacion de Origin (place name),
the official category for wines whose defining factors are regulated
In Portugal, the abbreviation for Denominacao de Origen Controlada,
the official category for the country's highest wine category, whose
defining factors are regulated by law.
In the making of Champagne and other sparkling wines, the wine and
sugar mixture that is added to adjust the final sweetness of the
The sweetest category of sparkling wines.
A wine that is not sweet because all perceptible sugar was consumed
during the fermentation process.
A wine whose appearance, aromas and flavors, and/or general style
are hazy and unclear.
An odor or flavor suggestive of earth or soil, usually undesirable.
A term applied to wines that express themselves in a refined or
delicate manner, as opposed to intense.
The science of wines and winemaking.
A principal city in France's Champagne district where the facilities
for blending, aging and bottling of many Champagne producers are
Vineyards owned by or under the direct control of the winery. On
a label, it means the grapes are sourced from vineyards owned by
or under the direct control of the winery that made the wine.
A chemical responsible for vinegary odors in wine.
Ethyl Alcohol, Ethanol
Alcohol in wine that is the product of the conversion of sugar by
yeast enzymes during fermentation.
A winemaking process for red wines where the juice is left in contact
with the skin cap for an extended amount of time after fermentation
A Champagne or sparkling wine that is sweet, containing 1.5 to 2.5%
A term implying full bodied, juicy, rich. The opposite of lean.
In wine, the process by which sugar in grape juice is transformed
into alcohol and carbon dioxide, and the juice to wine, through
the action of yeast organisms. Also refers to any conversion of
organic compounds that is catalyzed by microorganisms.
Clarifying wine by mixing in agents such as gelatin or egg whites
to remove specific components and suspended matter.
The final impression a wine leaves after you have swallowed or spit
A term for wines that are not soft, but are not harsh or tough,
generally referring to the tannic content of red wines or acidity
of white wines.
A term describing wines that are too soft.
A term for wine lacking a refreshing, tart or sour taste, or sparkling
wines that have lost their bubbles.
Organic substances in the grapes that are responsible for many characteristic
flavors and aromas of a varietal wine.
The degree to which a wine's flavors are pronounced and clearly
Aromatic compounds of a wine perceived by the mouth.
The term used to describe a rich textural impression of a wine.
Yeast that forms after fermentation, producing a film on the wine's
surface and imparting a distinctive flavor if left in contact with
the wine. Fino sherries are produced by aging under flor, which
protects the wine from oxygen and destroys the bacteria that turns
wine into vinegar, mycoderma aceti.
A wine in which the alcoholic content has been boosted by the addition
of grape spirit or brandy.
Grape juice that runs freely from the crusher and press before force
French oak barrels
Barrels made from oak wood from French forests. French barrels impart
more subtle wood flavors to wine than do American oak barrels.
Characteristics of a wine that are derived from the grape, such
as aroma, flavor, tannin, acidity and extract.
Displaying aromas and flavors suggestive of fruit. It can apply
to aromas or flavors suggestive of fresh fruit, dried fruit or cooked
The term for wines that give the impression of being large in the
mouth, usually derived from high alcohol content.
The term for wines whose characteristics are expressive and easy
Distinctively flavored pink grapes used for fine white wines.
A Spanish red table wine that has been aged at least 2 years in
oak and an additional 3 years in bottle before release.
Tannins in a red wine attributable to the grapes from which the
wine was made.
A particular type of grape, also called a "varietal.".
The high acid taste of wines made from unripe grapes.
A term for wines that are well balanced and express themselves gracefully.
The air space in the bottle between the wine and the closure, or
in a tank between the wine and the lid.
Pleasant odors reminiscent of herbs, such as fresh herbs, dried
herbs or specific herbs.
Another term for 60-gallon oak barrels.
High in alcohol, producing a slightly burning sensation on the palate.
Generally undesirable except in fortified wines.
Chemical responsible for the "off" odor of rotten eggs
An instrument used to measure the degrees Brix of grape juice during
ripening, harvest or fermentation.
A term that describes wines that express themselves strongly, either
aromas and flavors, or of the wine's overall impression.
Term used primarily in California to describe the most basic sort
of generic table wine, an American counterpart to vin ordinaire
Butter-like odor in wine created by malolactic fermentation caused
by the presence of diacetyl.
A term implying a thin, light-bodied, watery wine.
An organic acid produced in wine during malolactic fermentation,
where strong malic acid is converted to softer lactic acid. Lactic
acid is also found in milk.
Grapes picked at high sugar levels. Or grapes whose sugar level
at the time of harvest is due to Botrytis cinerea.
Any residue that settles out of wine after fermentation, made of
grape solids or dead yeast cells.
Drops that inch up the inside surface of a glass above the wine
and slowly run back down.
A term describing the sustained sensory impression across the tongue
of fine wines.
Soft, sweet, fat, fruity, and ripe. All these qualities in balance.