One of the main yeast species found in grapes and wines throughout
the world. Most of the yeast strains used to ferment white wines
are of this species.
A popular white varietal in Europe, California and Australia. Sometimes
called Fume Blanc in California, can be made into botrytised dessert
A fermentation that takes place after the primary fermentation.
Both malolactic fermentation and the second alcoholic fermentation
in sparkling wines are secondary fermentations.
The residue of solids in a bottle of red wine that forms as the
wine is matured.
A lesser known white grape often blended with Sauvignon Blanc, especially
in the production of the sweet wines of Sauternes, France.
The assessment of wine based on sight, smell, taste and touch.
A description used for a wine that is of high quality.
The precipitation of the solid matter in wine.
A fortified wine from Jerez de la Frontera, Spain, made by a controlled
oxidation method, produced in many different styles, from sweet
Cream sherry to very dry Fino sherry.
The Australian name for Syrah, a red grape variety.
Displaying a supple, smooth texture.
Wine made from grapes grown in one specific vineyard block, and
bottled without being blended with wine from any other vineyard.
The time in the winemaking process when the juice of the grapes
are in contact with the skins, extracting color, tannin and other
Containing a barely perceptible amount of residual sugar.
Displaying aromas that suggest smoke or smoked wood.
A description for wine whose texture is not astringent.
Description for a wine whose alcohol and sugar dominate the tannin
and acidity, resulting in a wine without roughness or hardness.
A system used in the creation of Spanish sherry to carefully blend
new and older vintages of wine to achieve a consistent style.
A wine steward.
The acid taste of wines that are made from unripe grapes.
Wine with an effervescence caused by a secondary alcoholic fermentation
that leaves carbon dioxide trapped in the bottle.
A term used to describe wine that displays aromas and flavors reminiscent
of aromatic spices.
In wine, the distilled alcohol used to make fortified wines.
The process of removing unwanted substances before bottling so they
won't cause haziness or crystal formation in the finished wine.
A batch of active yeast that is used to begin fermentation.
A machine that separates the grapes from their stems, generally
combined with a crusher and known as a "stemmer-crusher."
A term for wines that exhibit dry, woody tannins.
The woody part of a grape bunch that is high in tannin. Stems are
removed before fermentation using a stemmer.
Any wine without effervescence.
Displaying flavors or aromas that suggest stones or wet stones.
A wine's alcohol, acid, tannin and sugar.
The impression conveyed by a wine's structural components.
The characteristic combination of components - alcohol, acid, tannin
and sugar - associated with the wines of a region, a winery or a
The compound used to inhibit the growth of unwanted microorganisms
and to stop browning in wine.
A term meaning fluid in texture in the mouth, without any sharpness
A French term meaning, literally, "on the lees." Generally
refers to the aging of wines on the deposit of dead yeast that forms
after primary fermentation. Sur lie aging imparts a toasty quality
and enhances complexity.
The taste of a wine with perceptible residual sugar, and the description
of any dessert wine.
The impression of sugar in a wine, either from residual sugar or
from alcoholic content.
A distinguished red varietal made famous in the Rhone Valley, now
grown in California and Australia, where is it known as Shiraz.
Any still, dry wine less than 15% alcohol meant to accompany food.
A term used to describe wines with a high tannin impression.
A substance found in the skins, seeds and stems of grapes and a
principal component of red wine's structure, extracted during fermentation
while in contact with the skins and seeds. Oak barrels also impart
some tannin to wine.
Displaying aromas or flavors that suggest tar.
A term for the flavors and aromas associated with under-ripe fruit,
or a term for wine with a high acid impression.
One of the essential organic acids found in wine.
Salts of tartaric acid that can form crystals when combined with
potassium in unstabilized wine.
A general term for the total impression a wine gives in the mouth.
Also refers to the primary tastes found in wine: sweetness, sourness
The brownish or amber color characteristic of wine such as port
that has been aged in wood.
A French word for the particular growing conditions of a vineyard,
including soil, drainage, slope, climate, altitude, etc. that give
the grapes grown there unique characteristics.
Tete de cuvee
The French term for a Champagne producer's best bottling.
A wine's feel or consistency in the mouth.
A term to describe wines that seem lacking in substance.
A descriptor for wines whose aromas and/or flavors seem to be lacking
An aroma found in Champagne reminiscent of toasted bread.
The carmelization of barrel staves. The amount of "toast"
can vary, imparting different characteristics to the wine.
A winemaking technique to control oxidation of wines aging in barrels
where wine is added periodically to replace wine lost through evaporation.
The measure of all a wine's acids taken together.
A renowned forest near the French city of Moulins where oak is harvested
to make wine barrels.
Aromas or flavors that suggest dampness, wet leaves or slight decay.
Grapes that do not reach optimum ripeness; green.
Vanillin, imparted by aging in new oak barrels - particularly American
oak - which has a vanilla-like odor.
Describes the aromas and/or flavors characteristic of a particular
The characteristics of a particular grape variety, or the characteristics
of a wine that come from the grape variety from which it is made.
Sub-species of Vitis vinifera that are distinguished by yield, disease
resistance or characteristic aromas or flavors of their grapes and
the wine made from them.
A notable grassy or herbaceous "off" odor reminiscent
of flavors such as bell pepper or asparagus; undesirable when excessive.
The French term for wine.
The "off" odor of ethyl acetate or acetic acid.
The process of making grape juice into wine.
The year in which a wine's grapes grew and were harvested. The term
is often used as a synonym for the grape harvest.
A person who makes or sells wine.
The science or activity of growing grapes.
The species to which most of the world's wine grapes belong.
The impression of volume in the mouth that a wine imparts.
Wines whose components - acid, alcohol, tannin and residual sugar
- relate in a balanced way, so none overwhelm the others.
Tannins that are attributable to the barrels in which the wine was
aged, rather than from the grapes.
The "off" odor of wines stored too long in oak barrels.
One-cell microorganisms that transform grape juice into wine.
The odor of the yeast used to ferment the wine.
A fresh, fruity, un-oxidized and possibly slightly yeasty aroma.
A distinguished and versatile red grape variety grown in California
used to create red table wines, sparkling wines, blush wines and